TAMMUZ (Heb. תַּמּוּז; from Sumerian Dumuzi, "Invigorator of the Child"), the Sumerian-Babylonian fertility god. He is the invigorating power in dates, grain, and milk, and hence his role as a shepherd in Sumerian literature (Th. Jacobsen). In ancient Mesopotamia sacred marriage rites were conducted in the spring to ensure Tammuz' presence as manifest in the fertility of flocks and earth. The climax of the rites was the performance of the marriage act between the king or governor and the chief priestess. Depictions on seals from the Proto-Literate period (3500–3200 B.C.E.) indicate the great antiquity of this rite. Numerous sacred marriage texts revolving around fertility rites have survived from later periods. The death of vegetation in the intense heat of the summer was interpreted as Tammuz' departure to the netherworld. It is described in the Sumerian myth "Inanna's Descent into the Netherworld," which is also extant in an Akkadian version.   During the Babylonian Exile the Jews named the fourth month of the Hebrew calendar (c. July) after Tammuz (see next entry). In pre-Exilic Judah, Isaiah (17:10–11) has been supposed (very questionably) to allude to the Tammuz rites, which included planting of anemone seeds. Ezekiel (8:14) in a vision of the Jerusalem Temple, which he had in his Babylonian exile, saw women, at the gate of the inner forecourt, weeping for Tammuz. Tammuz' summer departure was also mourned by the Phoenicians, who called him Adon, i.e., "Lord." They passed the ritual on to the Greeks who Grecized the name into Adonis. -BIBLIOGRAPHY: A. Moortgat, Tammuz, (1949); Th. Jacobsen, in: H. Frankfort et al. (eds.), Before Philosophy (1949), 213–6; idem, in: History of Religions, 1 (1962), 180–213; S.N. Kramer, in: Pritchard, Texts, 41–42, 52–57, 106–9; ibid (19693), 637–45; idem, The Sumerians (1963), 153–60; idem, in: Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, 107 (1963), 485–527; idem, The Sacred Marriage Rite (1969); E.Y. Kutscher, Millim ve-Toledoteihen (1961), 59–61; O.R. Gurney, in: JSS, 7 (1962), 147–60. (Raphael Kutscher)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

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  • TAMMUZ — (Heb. תַּמּוּז), the post Exilic name of the fourth month of the Jewish year. The word, but not the month, occurs in Ezekiel 8:14 and is held to be identical with the Babylonian Dumuzi corresponding to Adonis of the Greeks. Tammuz as the name of… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Tammuz — may refer to: Tammuz (deity), Babylonian and Sumerian god Tammuz (Hebrew month), the 10th month of the Hebrew calendar Tammuz (Babylonian calendar), a month in the Babylonian calendar Tammuz 1 or Osirak, formerly a nuclear reactor in Iraq See… …   Wikipedia

  • Tammuz — (en árabe تمّوز, en hebreo תַּמּוּז) era una divinidad babilónica, consorte de Inanna, adoptada del panteón sumerio, en el que recibía el nombre de Dumuzi. En su honor recibía también ese nombre un mes del calendario empleado en la antigua… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Tammuz — (hebr.) bezeichnet: Tammuz (Mythologie), eine Person aus der akkadischen und aramäischen Mythologie Tammus, einen Monat des jüdischen Kalenders Diese Seite ist eine Begriffsklärung zur Unterscheidung mehrerer mit demselben …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Tammuz — [tä′mooz] n. [Heb tammūz < Akkadian tamūz, a god of fertility < Sumerian Dumu zi (lit., true son), god & legendary king] the tenth month of the Jewish year: see the Jewish calendar in the Reference Supplement …   English World dictionary

  • Tammuz — Babylonian and Assyrian god (identified with Adon), probably from Babylonian Du uzu, contraction of Dumu zi the son who rises, also interpeted as the faithful son …   Etymology dictionary

  • Tammuz — /tah mooz/; for 1 also /tah moohz /; for 2 also /tam uz/, n. 1. the tenth month of the Jewish calendar. Cf. Jewish calendar. 2. a Sumerian and Babylonian shepherd god, originally king of Erech, confined forever in the afterworld as a substitute… …   Universalium

  • Tammuz — Dumuzi Dumuzi en sumérien, ou Tammuz en babylonien, est un dieu mésopotamien. Il est le dieu pasteur et dieu de la fertilité dans la religion babylonienne. C est un berger roi uni à Ishtar dans un très ancien rite de mariage sacré.[1] Un récit… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Tammuz — I Tammuz   [ muz; hebräisch], sumerisch und akkadisch Dumuzi [ zi; »rechter Sohn«], altmesopotamischer (dem westsemitischen Adonis verwandter) Vegetationsgott; Hirte und Geliebter der Göttin Inanna (Ischtar) von Uruk, die ihn den Dämonen der… …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Tammuz —    Very early Babylonian and Assyrian god; brother and lover of Belili, and later spouse of Ishtar. He was a spring sowing god who was killed in the autumn, presumably after the harvest. Originally he was the ritual husband of the harvest goddess …   Who’s Who in non-classical mythology

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